A recent CDC sampling study determined that approximately 10% of persons living with HIV who acquired the disease via injection drug use self-reported having shared their needle using equipment with others. Eighty percent of individuals in the study also reported not being in treatment for substance use. Approximately 6% of HIV infections in the U.S. are attributable to injection drug use.
Injection Practices and Sexual Behaviors Among Persons with Diagnosed HIV Infection Who Inject Drugs — United States, 2015–2017, released August 2, 2019 in CDC's MMWR, presents data from the Medical Monitoring Project (MMP).
The implications for the study include the need for improvements in services, like syringe service programs (SSPs). CDC, HRSA, and SAMHSA have each issued guidances that provide allowances for the use of federal funds on "certain components" of SSPs, which are summarized in HIV.gov's blog Opioid Crisis Is Raising Risks of HIV & Other Infectious Diseases. CDC has also released a set of fact sheets on Syringe Services Programs.